Why would you even want to use an acid on your skin? Isn’t it dangerous?

And if you live a clean and healthy lifestyle, do you even need to use acids?

Good questions.



Hello, I’m Wendy. I don’t use ‘acids’ on my skin – why?

The media will tell you, Of course you need acids, they exfoliate your skin!

And aren’t we meant to Tone with an acid toner as Step 2 in the Holy Grail of  Cleanse-Tone-Moisturise?


I don’t use acids to exfoliate and I dont use acids to tone my skin either.


Yes my mother and granny swore by Toner. I used Toner as a spotty-faced teenager.

But I haven’t used a Toner  in almost 20 years.



First of all, I have no need of a toner.



I use hydrosol-based products that already look after my skin’s pH.

Jardin de Fleurs main ingredient is geranium hydrosol, which is the skin-perfect acidity for a healthy skin biome.

And then I use Drench facial tonic to support my collagen – again its bursting with skin-perfect acid hydrosols, aloe, vitamins and minerals.

Same thing with  with my moisturisers, Heart of Eternity, Proposal in Paris and Ultra Radiance. Not a drop of neutral pH tap water there friends, that’s why they work so well.


So what do I do for skin-exfoliating then?


Lets’ say  my face, shoulder or back feel in need of a little lift when seasons change or from humid weather or wearing many layers in winter, what then?

Do I use a sugar scrub on my cheeks?

Nooooooo! That would wreck my complexion. Sheesh.


I use Harmony facial scrub which is based around Lavender hydrosol, so it has the natural skin-loving slightly acid  pH.

Because Harmony is made with gentle bamboo spheres, it doesn’t shred skin with rough surfaces from other natural options like sugar and salt crystals. Bamboo is also biodegradable  No harming the oceans or sea animals  with icky plastic microbeads. (Not to mention the nasty side effects from hormones disruption from plastics!)

So zero chemical acids that cause skin sensitivity.


Instead gorgeous floral hydrosols distilled either by me here in my own copper still or sourced direct from artisan distillers on their flower farms.

There are no down-sides to using flower hydrosols – my skin isn’t made sensitive to sunlight, as they would be from acids.

Rosewater is naturally slightly acidic, same thing for lavender distillate. They are Pherfect for happy skin.

weighing copper pot with calendulal flowers for distilling into hydrosol hydrolat

fresh calendula flowers going into the still


I’m wondering whether I should rename my flower distillates Flower Acids? What do you think?

Acids used in skincare

There are many acids used in skincare with the most common being hydroxy acids (alphas, beta and poly) , retinoids and enzymes.

I use Hyaluronic Acid which is a misnomer as it isn’t really an acid, it’s a neutral sodium salt.

Alpha hydroxy acids include glycolic, lactic and malic acids. Lactic acid is often used in moisturisers to change the pH – it has a moisturising effect in low doses and is said to reduce wrinkles and tighten pores.

The best known beta hydroxy acid is salicylic acid, said to unclogs pores, help to eliminate blackheads and speed up healing process of pimples and irritation

Poly hydroxy acids inlude lactobionic acid and gluconolactone.



Retinoids are vitamin A derivatives that speed up cell renewal. They also slow down collagen breakdown and act as anti-oxidants to soak up free radical damage.

But Retinol tends to be irritating and drying to skin causing redness flaking and discomfort.  Massive downside.

Instead I recommend you use a natural retinoal alternative that does not have the nasty side effects.

My exotic suggestions would be Babchi, and Cacay

Another goody is Rosehip – which is in Empress Elixir.

These natural options are really good for older skin or skin prone to wrinkling.

They also are packed with nutreitns that feed your skin, so think of them as a superfood smoothie boost.



Now this is something you are free to try at home – it’s also fun as you can use foods from your pantry.

I’d suggest eating the fruitss and then wiping the inner peel onto a your freshly washed face.

I’ve used papaya peel for it’s natural Papain,  and pinepple for it’s  Bromelain, although I dont eat pineapple often as I find it overly acidic. I’ve heard you can use  Kiwi, for it’s Actinidin.

How they work is that the digestive enzymes loosen the dead cells on the surface of your skin.

Leave the sweet sugary juice on your face for 10-20 minutes then wash off with tepid water.

Don’t do this wearing a new frock tho! It can be drippy and messy.


Here are some more tips for you:

Got scarring? You need this

Your skin needs this daily

The acid that isn’t an acid

Japanese beauty secret

Is Gamma Oryzanol safe for humans?

Yes. Gamma Oryzanol  is sold as a medicine in Japan. It’s also a beauty secret for healthy hair and hydrated skin.

It’s also known as Gama Orizanol, Gamma-Oryzanol, Gamma-OZ, Oryzanol.

It is a natural extract from rice bran husks. The Latin name for rice is Oryza sativa, so you can see how gamma oryzanol gets its name.

What is Gamma Oryzanol?

Gamma-oryzanol (γ-oryzanol) contains a mixture of antioxidant molecules called steryl ferulates. (The molecules are Cycloartenyl Ferulate, Cycloartenol, , Beta-sitosterol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, and Campesterol and they are all built on a ferulic acid backbone..)

Gamma Oryzanol benefits

Rice bran oil is used in Asia for cooking as it has a high smoke point.

Gamma-Oryzanol extract has powerful antioxidant effects and a Japanese medicine for   anxiety and menopause. It’s been studied for mood, nervous system, heart health, stress, immunity and sleep.

When used in skincare products, Gamma-oryzanol acts as a protective shield against UV and smoke that cause free radical damage such as melanin synthesis (skin darkening).

Because gamma-oryzanol activates sebum glands, it can be used to reduce skin dryness. This is one secret to how Japanese women keep their skin hydrated and soft.

Oryzanol and menopause

Rice bran extract protects against ageing-related skin symptoms, such as roughness and wrinkling. Oryzanol is actually more effective than Vitamin C in slowing down collagen degradation.  (This is why it’s included in Ultra Radiance (Glow’s made to order face cream) and  Heart of Eternity Night Cream)

After menopause our skin naturally thins and wrinkles – oryzanol can help to keep our skin thicker and smoother, for longer.

Cycloartenyl ferulate has anti-inflammatory properties that reduce allergic reactions, so this keeps your complexion more even.

Oryzanol is also used in hair care products because it promotes hair follicle proliferation and secretion of growth factors.


Antioxidant defenses
Supports antioxidant defenses (SOD, GPx)
Supports Nrf2 signaling
Supports phase II antioxidant enzymes (HO-1, NQO1)
Counters ROS production and oxidative stress

What does niacinamide do for your skin?

Niacinamide is a form of vitamin B-3. It’s a water-soluble vitamin that is an essential nutrient for health and skin.  Niacin, another form of vitamin B3, helps increase the levels of HDL (the good cholesterol) and is essential in the production of adrenal hormones.

Severe nutritional deficiency of Vitamin B3 causes pellagra, with the 3 d symptoms:  dermatitis, diarrhea, and depression.

Other names for it include: 3-Pyridine Carboxamide, 3-Pyridinecarboxamide, Amide de l’Acide Nicotinique, B Complex Vitamin, Complexe de Vitamines B, Niacinamida, Nicamid, Nicosedine, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic Acid Amide, Nicotylamidum, Pyridine-3-carboxamide, Vitamin B3, Vitamina B3, Vitamine B3.

Vitamin B3 for acne

A lack of Vitamin B3 is linked with dry, red and irritated skin like acne, blotches and eczema.

Niacinamide also reduces redness as seen in rosacea, eczema and acne.  Reports suggest it also reduces pore size over time because it regulates oil production.

It’s said to tighten lax pores, improve uneven skin tone and treat hyper pigmentation.

Vitamin B3 for eczema or mature skin

If you have mature or eczema skin, you may be lacking in Vitamin B3.  Yes dry, tight, flaky skin can be caused by a lack of Vitamin B3..

Niacinamide strengthens the skin’s barrier to protect against environmental damage.

How? Niacinamide helps your skin produce ceramides which then seal in hydration.

This helps your skin stay dewy

As we age, our skin can get a yellow hue or those beastly liver/age spots. Niacinamide helps prevent this !  It increases NAD(P) antioxidants in the skin, which protect agsinst free radicals that cause the unsightly yellowing and glycation of skin.

Vitamin B3 also supports healthy collagen,  and softens fine lines and wrinkles while diminishing dullness.



Niacinamide skin care products

Yes, even if you eat healthy, your skin can still be missing out on nutrition.  Being the largest organ, it waits in line for nutrition, so by applying a topical product, it goes directly to skin where it’s needed.

Look for niacinamide products that you can leave on your skin, so that the Vitamin B3 is not washed away. Think -toners, serums and face creams.

You can layer Vitamin B3 products, for instance, apply a toner with niacinamide immediately after cleansing to rehydrate and replenish skin.

Then apply either a serum or face cream that contains Vitamin B3.

Sometimes you can blend your serum into your favorite moisturizer or facial mist.  Experiment and see what works best for your skin!

Should I use niacinamide or vitamin C?

Niacinamide has visible results on pores, fine lines, and dullness skin

Antioxidant Vitamin C brightens your complexion as it fights free radicals.

There’s a synergy from combining them  though!

niacinamide and vitamin c

Can you use vitamin C with niacinamide?  Absolutely!

If you read that they cannot combined, that research was done in the 1960’s with non-stablised forms of vitamin C.

So yes, using both together is a good idea, they complement each other.

Put them together, in a face mist like Drench Facial Tonic, they’re a dream combination addresses uneven skin tone, wrinkles, loss of firmness, and dullness. All skin types will see a complexion that progressively becomes more radiant, smoother, more even, and noticeably younger-looking.



vitamin c and niacinamide


Natural sources of Vitamin B3

Vitamin B-3 is found in:

  • eggs
  • seeds – sunflower, sesame, pine nuts, almonds, macadamia, peanut, watermelon, pumpkin, chia, pistachio, pecans,w alnuts
  • green peas, mushrooms,  avocados, asparagus, broccoli, tomatoes, artichokes, okra, kale, potatoes
  • bananas, mangoes, guava, nectarines, prunes, raisins and apricots
  • beans – adzuki, kidney, black turtle, garbanzo,lima
  • fish, esp anchovies, salmon, tuna
  • chicken, turkey, pork, beef
  • barley, millet, lentils, quinoa
  • potatoes and brown rice

Vitamin B 3 Studies:

  • Analysis by multiple angle reflectance spectrophotometer demonstrated that 2.5% niacinamide resulted in smoother skin surface compared to vehicle alone (p<0.05).
  • 3.5% niacinamide cream was compared with placebo for four weeks and demonstrated a 14.8% reduction in skin roughness (p=0.05).,,
  • In a randomized, double-blind, split-face, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, 50 white females applied 5% niacinamide and vehicle twice daily for 12 weeks. Results showed significant improvement in fine lines and wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, redness, yellowing, and skin elasticity (p<0.05).
  • This study using niacinamide 5% and niacinamide 2% + UVB/UVA sunscreen moisturizer reported reduced facial hyperpigmentation in Japanese women.
  •  In a randomized, split-faced trial, 5% niacinamide was used on 18 Japanese women vs. vehicle. Pigmentation change was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using high resolution digital images and subjective judgments. After 8 weeks, there was significant lightening of hyperpigmentation on the side treated with niacinamide compared to vehicle (p<0.05).


retinol and niacinamide

niacinamide and retinol

niacinamide cream

azelaic acid and niacinamide together

Read this article on azelaic acid compared with other acid options here.

I’m often asked, what’s inside a well known facial care product or cosmetic.

So that’s what today’s post is about…  I’m going to pick a brand you’d have seen at Duty Free (remember those days?!)

Clinique moisturiser

We all use moisturiser, so it’s a good choice for today.

Now look at this photo. See the pretty pink cream snuggled up to a  gorgeous aloe vera plant. Oh yes, you want aloe.

The product name is so enticing too, wow. Great wordplay.

Tinkerbell pretty silver lid.  Yes yes!! And a great price at Duty Free, hurrah.

Clinique Moisture Surge

So what’s inside Clinique Moisture Surge then?

Let’s look at what else is inside that pretty pot? How to do that, well let’s look at the ingredients list.

From an official website we find the full ingredients listing:

Water\Aqua\Eau, Glycerin, Dimethicone, Isopropyl Isostearate, Dipropylene Glycol, Squalane, Peg/Ppg-18/18 Dimethicone, Silica, Tocopheryl Acetate, Sodium Hyaluronate, Olea Europaea (Olive) Fruit Extract, Centella Asiatica (Hydrocotyl) Extract, Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Water, Palmitoyl Hexapeptide-12, Triticum Vulgare (Wheat) Bran Extract, Caffeine, Methyl Trimethicone, Sorbitol, Sodium Polyaspartate, Petrolatum, Trehalose, Whey Protein\Lactis Protein\Protéine Du Petit-Lait, Linoleic Acid, Pyridoxine Dipalmitate, Butylene Glycol, Cholesterol, Sucrose, Polysilicone-11, Glyceryl Polymethacrylate, Peg-150, Peg-8, Hydroxyethyl Urea, Hydroxyacetophenone, Bht, Disodium Edta, Sodium Hexametaphosphate, Sodium Benzoate, Potassium Sorbate, Phenoxyethanol.

Where does the aloe appear on the ingredients?

Look for the Latin name of aloe barbadensis. Seems high on the list so it must be choc-a-bloc loaded, right?


It’s listed after Sodium Hyaluronate (aka Hyaluronic Acid  (HA)), an ingredient that always appears near the end of the listing due to its nature. HA is never used in massive amounts in a face cream, as it’s a powerful humectant that helps hold onto 1000x times it’s weight in water so obviously could not appear near the front of the list in a cream.  You could not, for instance, put 1g of HA powder into the recipe.  (Why not?  Try it for yourself and see what happens)

Ok, so now we know that the aloe is used in a tiny amount – probably as a freeze dried powder then rehydrated into water, which is fine.  It’s possible to chop open aloe leaves and remove the gel and then mix that straight into a fresh batch of cream. But logistically a nightmare. If I lived in a sunny climate with aloe in the garden, I would definitely give it a try.

Next we ask, what is the main ingredient?  What’s the main component of this very pretty pink  cream?

Um, well it’s water, tap water.  This range is produced in the tens of thousands of units in under a day. I dont know, maybe they make 500 000 units in a morning. So they’re going to need ingredients available in bulk, with a  long shelf life as they’re going to be sitting on brightly lit shelves in stores with central heating and nobody in the supply chain wants to dump products with a  short shelf life.  So that explains lots of the components that are synthetics. (These also bring manufacturing costs down. Naturals are a pain in the rear for large manufacturers! )

Ok, so the main ingredients is tap water.  Tap water will be about 75% of this recipe. The next biggest ingredient is  glycerine according to the website, but on older packaging it was a synthetic, Cyclopentasiloxane. Glycerine is a humetant, its a good thing to have. It’s used at about 3-5% concentration or will make a recipe so sticky.  So know you know approx 80% of the recipe. Glycerine is cheap. Water is basically free.

What else is in that?  Next up are Dimethicone, Isopropyl Isostearate, Dipropylene Glycol – ouch, I would have to google those as I’m not a chemist or chemical engineer.  I don’t use them so have no idea.

Boy, there are hundreds of thousands of chemicals out there, I don’ know many. I focus on the natural things, that come from plants. So I would have to google each and every weird sounding name too.

And then you get to something nice – Squalane. It’s 6th in the list.  It’s the first expensive item. Then another two synthetics before you get Vitamin E and HA. Ok so you get the idea. A largely synthetic base with bits of naturals and nice added. You can also see petroleum listed.

Why is it pink?

What I’m most interested in, is how they’ve made it pink.  Is it a dye?  (Nothing leaps out in the listing) That pink colour is added through, I’m not sure. Pink clay would do it, also certain herbal extracts but I don’t see those listed. Centella asiatica herb doesn’t give a pink hue when extracted, it’s brown. Any ideas?

clinique uk



As for reformulating,  it’s not always a bad thing. Often an ingredient is no longer available.

A customer wrote: ” I’ve used the old Moisture Surge Intense for years but the new version seems to have caused me to break out when I don’t usually suffer with spots. The texture us slightly lighter than the old version, it does make your skin feel soft and plump but I sadly can’t use it so will have to look for another moisturizer.”

Another thing to remember is that our skin changes, not just with age, but also according to the seasons and how stressed we are.  What you eat, how much sleep and fresh air you get, whether your gut is digesting and absorbing sufficiently. So many factors.


If you enjoyed this, and want another products analysed, email me. Also sign up to my newsletter. I share lots of ideas and tips.




What is hyaluronic acid?

Hyaluronic Acid is a naturally occurring mucopolysaccharide that provides lubrication and cushioning to the movable parts of the body, such as joints, eyes, skin and muscles. It also acts as a nutrient distributor to areas that lack blood supply like cartilage and eyeballs.

Because Hyaluronic Acid is strongly hydrophilic (water-loving), it’s been dubbed “nature’s moisturizer”.

Chemically, it’s formed from a long chain of glucuronic acid and N acetyl glucosamine. It was first discovered at Columbia University, New York in 1934 by scientists Karl Meyer and John Palmer. Roosters combs contain HA and it is also made in a  lab through fermentation .


‘Half life’  of hyaluronic acid

While Hyaluronic Acid is found in almost every cell, it does not stay in your cells permanently.

It has a ‘half life’ between 1-3 days. (Half life means your body breaks it down then excretes it). Bad news for skin after the age of 35.

This is why you need to keep topping up supplies, otherwise your skin dries out and start forming lines.  If you have eye troubles like floaters or light flashes, you might need to top up your HA.

hyaluronic acid for oily skin

Hyaluronic Acid and your skin

Your skin is your largest organ. It contains 50% of your body’s Hyaluronic Acid supply.

Hyaluronic Acid and collagen maintain your skin’s structure. Loose either and your face starts sagging, wrinkling, not pleasant!

Collagen provides firmness but it is the Hyaluronic  Acid that nourishes and hydrates the collagen.

Collagen is like a rubber band – stretch it a million times and eventually the rubber band dries out, loses its elasticity and will most likely break.

This is much the same way the collagen in our skin reacts. Hyaluronic Acid helps to prevent collagen from overstretching and drying out by continually bathing it in a nutritious, water based gelatinous fluid.

It provides continuous moisture to the skin by binding up to 1000 times its weight in water and literally acts like a sponge to help retain a supple, firm skin tone and youthful appearance.

It also serves as a wonderful medium through which nutrients and waste are transported to and from the cells of these structures. Young skin is smooth and highly elastic because it contains high concentrations of HA. But as we age, the skin loses its ability to maintain the same levels of HA, resulting in aging and wrinkles.

hyaluronic acid and acne

Hyaluronic Acid for acne

Here you can see an experiment I did on an acne spot from mask wearing. Normally I use rosehip and essential oils like helichrysum (what’s inside Empress Elixir), but this time I decided to try out Hyaluronic Acid gel serum . I soaked a piece of silk fabric in helichrysum hydrolat than spread it with hyaluronic acid serum. This I taped to my chin with Micropore tape. (You could use a wide plaster) .

As it was lockdown, nobody except my family saw my patched chin :-)  Anyway I replenished the serum probably twice daily, and noticed the skin felt soothed.

I also had a burn on my finger from soapmaking and applied the same thing, HA serum inside a silk covering. Why silk? I’d read that silk protein was great for skin.. but who knows. You could probably get similiar effects with cotton or linen. My finger took longer to ehal, beacsue I sue my hadsn most fot eh day, the flexing and bending of the skin kept tearing teh skin. I think the silk covering acted like a splint, it kept the injured finger straighter, less flexible, while the skin was healing.


So you can see from the photos, it was an experiment that turned out well. Hyaluronic Acid does really help prevent scars. See the llist below:

Benefits to your skin

  • Reduction in skin roughness
  • Decreased Risk of Scarring and infection after surgery
  • Increased Wound Healing when used as a hydro gel or medical dressing
  • Stimulates production of TIMP-1  – which then  protects collagen  and elastin
  • Decreased Wrinkle Depth as the lines are plumped up from below
  • Increased Hydration so skin feels softer more plushy
  • Increased Skin Barrier Defence from micro-organisms
  • Increased Cellular Repair due to increased communication
  • Increased penetration of active ingredients esp. hydrophilic.

Hyaluronic acid and rosacea

Losing Hyaluronic Acid  means our skin starts to dry out.  It becomes more sebnsitive to weather, stress, ingredients, pollution. The drie it gets the more sore and red it becdomes. And then the itching… Hyaluronic Acid is able to provide a cushion of moisture, that stops the dryness and itching.  So don’t let your skin dry out. Keep your levels of hyaluronic acid topped up. See suggestions for a toner below.

And the other side effect of drier skin, are the fine lines and wrinkles.  Hyaluronic Acid provides continuous moisture to the skin by binding up to 1000 times its weight in water. It literally acts like a sponge to help retain a supple, firm skin tone and youthful appearance.

It takes less than 24 hours for 50% of the Hyaluronic Acid your skin has produced to be destroyed, so this means that Hyaluronic Acid needs to be replenished daily in the skin

How to do this? Simply switch to a hyaluronic acid toner (eg Drench),  to get a daily dose for  your face.  Follow with a hyaluronic acid-based face cream like Heart of Eternity that’s designed to replenish and protect skin that’s dry and sensitive.

And of course, skip those messy clay masks that often dry your skin out – instead use a  hyaluronic acid mask that plumps up skin and leaves skin dewy soft. Do this at least twice a week, more often when weather is dry or windy.

Hyaluronic acid toner


Hyaluronic acid for lips

Your lips are made of muscles and skin tissue. The dermal layer contains Hyaluronic Acid and collagen. Because Hyaluronic Acid binds to water, it creates a jelly-like fluid that bathes and hydrates the muscle and collagen, keeping both nourished, hydrated and plumped. Because of the half life, you need to keep topping up Hyaluronic Acid to your lips. (Our Drench facial tonic and Super-hydrating Face mask contain HA)

Hyaluronic Acid for hair

Skin on the scalp is similar to that elsewhere. The difference is that the scalp area contains about 100,000 hair follicles which produce hair. Both hair and the hair follicle are a derivative of skin tissue.

The scalp has two layers- the outer layer (epidermis) which protects you like a shield. And the deeper layer (dermal)where the hair follicles produce your hair. Hyaluronic Acid in the dermal layer hydrate and feed your hair follicles with nutrients needed for healthy glossy hair.


Hyaluronic Acid and eye health

Did you know that most of the vitreous humour (fluid within the eye) is Hyaluronic Acid?

It acts like a shock absorber and transports nutrients to the eye. And after age 50,  the loss of HA can result in various eye conditions such as floaters and light flashes..



Tips to boost your HA naturally –

Citrus fruits, tomatoes and bananas contain a substance called naringenin.  Naringenin inhibits the breakdown of Hyaluronic Acid in the body.

Eat foods rich in the antioxidant lycopene to boost Hyaluronic Acid and collagen production

Look for foods rich lutein and zeaxanthin ( a yellow pigment ) that helps protect your eyes from UV B light.  So marigolds, squash, asparagus, parsely, pistachios, carrots, peas, chard, spinach, egg yolks, kale, brussel sprouts. Lutein is protective against age spots (lipofuscin).

Bilberries protect against night blindness from their rhodopsin.


It’s an acid – so does it burn?

Ha!. Hyaluronic Acid has been misnamed. It is actually a salt (sodium hyaluronate ) with a neutral pH.  It should never have been labelled as an acid, as a PH test shows it to be neutral, not acidic.  Because of the amazing water retention capacity of Hyaluronic Acid, it is one of Nature’s natural moisturisers, so look for it in face and lip care products.


How does HA compare to Glucosamine or Chondroitin?

Glucosamine must combine with a glucoronic acid molecule to make Hyaluronic Acid. After this synovial fluid can be produced. But If your body isn’t able to join these two molecules together, it won’t be able to make its own Hyaluronic Acid supply, so consider taking a supplement. It’s a good supplement for everybody over the age of 50 – for hair, skin, eyes, joints.


When to supplement with Hyaluronic Acid

As we age, our skin loses its ability to maintain the same levels of Hyaluronic Acid as when we were younger.

Babies and young children have a high amount in their skin which is why it feels soooo soft! .

People over 40 notice drier skin, difficulty in their joints, eyesight changes.. all signs that Hyaluronic Acid consumption exceeds supply. Inflammation breaks down HA too.

Replenish it topically with a good skincare ritual, and take supplements for your joints and eyes.

At one time it was thought that stomach acid destroyed the HA molecule. More recent research has shown a large portion of the molecule goes undisturbed by the stomach acid and goes on to be absorbed in the small intestine.

What to do with lemongrass

Although it smells lemony, lemongrass is not related to lemons or any of the citrius family.

Instead it is part of the massive grass family, the same family that Citronella belongs to. . It grows in warmer climates  in sandy soils.  We Aroma therapists love lemongrass  essential oils for it’s powerful effects on skin and mood and chefs’ love to cook with it or blend tasty teas. Read on to discover how to use it in your home..

The Latin name is Cymbopogon Citratus

What does lemongrass smell like

It smells like lemons and eucalyptus mixed. and sweet.

What does lemongrass taste like?

It’s got a clean green and lemony flavour in Thai foods, often with coconut milk and other spices including cardamom. Mmm yummy.

What does lemongrass look like?

It’s a grass, so has long coarse leaves that are rough to the touch. If you’re too casual around lemongrass you can nick your skin. Like sugarcane, lemongrass has leaves that can cut your fingers if you’re not careful.


How to cook with lemongrass

Use a pair of scissors to snip a leaf or two from the freshplant and then make these into a tea.

For cooking you will use the inner part of the thickened stem.  Peel away the outer layers of the thick stem  to get to the more fragrant inner part.  Chop it finely into slices.

Store it in an airtight bag or container to stop it drying out. The drier the leaves the hearder to slice.

Where to find the stalk part for cooking?  Find it in the exotic foods section of your supermarket, or at the greengrocers in the fridge where they keep the ginger roots.

If you live someplace warm enough (eg subtropical climate), consider buying a plant and growing your own.  If you’re in the UK, it will grow in a heated greenhouse.

Lemongrass tea recipe

This is how to make lemongrass tea. Yes, you can use dried or fresh lemongrass leaves for your tea. Save the root for your cooking.  A lovely lemongrass tea recipe is to combine fresh grated ginger with cut lemongrass leaves together in a teapot or mug. Use a heaped teaspoon per person plus one extra for the pot. Pour over just boiled water and let it steep for ten minutes or more with the lid on. If you use a mug, place a small plate over the top to trap the steam.This prevents the oh so fragrant steam evaporating.

And put the used leaves into the compost.

Grated ginger root is lovely with it. And really good in winter when you’re not feeling well. It is also excellent after a meal to help cleanse your palate and help with digestion. Because it is caffeine free, you can enjoy a cup before bedtime and not worry about insomnia or sleeplessness.

And if you forget to drink your tea because you’re steeping it, you can drink it cold the next day!


How to use lemongrass

Lemongrass products are helpful as the scent is a  mosquito repellent, so candles, room sprays and body lotion can help keep the mozzies away. Lemongrass is more pleasant on the nose than its cousin citronella.

I’ve used lemongrass essential oils in skincare products, for instance Tuscan Sunrise blended with Sweet Orange. The lemongrass adds anti viral effects through the  natural components inside Lemongrass. . It makes a gentle hand wash to use during the pandemic and the high glycerine content is soothing on skin that is feeling taut, dry or chafed.  The scent of Tuscan Sunrise also lifts your mood – useful when weather if cold, dark and gloomy in the UK… So a refreshing lemony orangey scent that perks you up, adds a smile to your face – it’s an anti-gloomy blend.


I’ve also used a drop of Lemongrass on a tissue to clean a whiteboard.  I’ve also used it on walls that were damp and prone to mould, and as a welcoming room scent on the vaporiser along with lavender and sweet orange.  Lemongrass is one of the oils I use when there are coughs and colds about, eg autumn winter and spring.


Lemongrass makes a lovely smelling bar of cold process soap.  You can also blend it with rosemary and add to your shampoo, or mix it with a  tablespoon of honey and swirl into your bathwater.  Just go easy, and use a drop or two at a time so you don’t overpower your senses.  My family say the smell makes their eyes water when I use a lot of it, eg when making lemongrass soap,  so I try be sparing with its use in my office/studio for cleaning surfaces.


By the way, animal studies have been done on individual components within lemongrass, that help wounds heal. However as an Aromatherapist we would not use an extract from an essential oil due to skin reactions. A whole and complete oil has less risk to causing an allergic reaction.

Lemongrass magical properties


I’ve written on ways I’ve used lemongrass in my life. However there are lots more uses for it that I’ve not tested or don’t remember using..

Textbooks say lemongrass  can be used to:  mask odours, be used in blends for jetlag or convalescence,  to reduce pore size in facial products, balancing oily skin in combination with geranium, blended with rosemary for oily hair shampoos and conditioners, and in post sports products as well as general house cleaning.


What’s inside lemongrass?

Ok for all the chemistry geeks, it contains citral (75-85%), methylheptenone, citronellal, geraniol, limonene.   and you’ll know that Citral is on the list of known sensitizers.

Citronellal in studies showed that it has both antibacterial and antioxidant effects believed to accelerate the regeneration of damaged cells and form new tissue.


However Citronellal is also on the list of potential Sensitizers, which makes you wonder why they were testing it neat, poor little creatures in that animal study.


So my tip would be to do as Aromatherapists do, stick with whole and complete essential oils from a  reliable supplier.



Acne and pimples suck. I thought my teenage years of misery with spots were a thing of the past, but then the pandemic happened.

I got a nasty red spot on my chin the day after my post-lockdown haircut. Horrible! (the spot, not the haircut)

Then I scratched away at it, leaving an uglier patch of dark skin called Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH)

So I experimented on the dark acne scar with a new ingredient called Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP).


What is Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP)

Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP) is a derivative of Vitamin C, nicknamed the new and effective “natural acne treatment”.

But unlike Ascorbic Acid that is unstable and oxides, often creating a tingling sensation on the skin, SAP is resistant to oxidisation which is good news for your skin.

SAP is powerful antioxidant and because it  is bio available, your skin can use it to even out discolouration.

It’s preferred to the Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP), Ascorbyl Palmitate, and Ascorbic Acid other Vitamin C derivatives.


What does Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP) do?

If you have dark discolouration from spots caused by acne or maskne, then your skin needs vitamin C.

SAP is able to penetrate the epidermis without causing irritation or oxidising.

It prevents excess melanin from depositing and making the spot darker.

SAP protects your face against free radicals that want to age your skin.

When worn under sunscreen,  SAP boosts the UV protection

It  brightens your skin tone and evens out your complexion by fading pigmentation and brown spots.

And it boosts collagen production.

The snag is that it’s expensive, which is why the less stable from Ascorbic Acid is used.


Drench contains Vitamin C and Vitamin B

So what else can you do to fade acne scars? 

Load up on natural Vitamin C in your menu – fresh citrus, strawberries, kiwi fruits, leafy green veg. Take a Vitamin C Supplement.

Apply a product loaded with SAP the stable form of cosmetic Vitamin C, eg Vitamin C Serum  made by Glow Skincare

In the evening use a natural retinol derivative to help speed up skin regeneration, and brighten your skin. (Cacay, Babchi, Hibiscus)

Once your skin is healed, use a gentle exfoliating scrub twice a week (we recommend Harmony that’s made with ocean-friendly bamboo silica spheres.)

Wear a light moisturiser under your face mask to prevent chafing. Wash your fabric face mask regularly.

Spray on dermal safe Vitamin C that’s in  Drench facial tonic

Read more about Maskne here

Which cream is best for pigmentation?

Look for creams rich in omega threes. Rosehip sed oil is great fro reducign pigmentation alogn with cacy and argan.

Heart of Eternity contains Argan oil.

Can pigmentation be removed?

Yes, follow the guidelines in this article.

Eat healthy foods and switch to gentle natural skincare.

Give yourself time and patience to allow the pigmentation to fade.

Things NOT to do to Maskne spots 

I recall using very harsh cleansers and scrubs on my face as a teenager (Clearasil.) These did not help then, and they won’t help now. Skin needs to be treated gently.

Sloshing on Salicylic Acid or Glycolic acid to a new scar will actually worsen the problem, while Hydrocortisone thins skin making it more fragile.

vitamin c and niacinamide

Can you copmbine vitamoin c with nicadcimamie?

Abolutely.  Read this post on Vitamin B3 Niacimamide.





Sunbathing has many health benefits.  So what does sunlight do for the body?’

Sunlight is essential for Vitamin D production (hello strong bones and teeth), sun baths also boost immunity, brain and heart function, mood and eyesight.

After a long, wet and grey winter… there’s nothing like sunbathing to feel perky and energetic.  Libido gets a boost too.

Why skin needs sunlight to stay healthy.

But there is a lot of debate about sun exposure for those of us living in temperate climates.

Beauty practitioners are taught to avoid any scrap of sunshine for fear of sun damage and premature ageing. Even passengers on flights are told they need to drown in sunblock…

Many chemical based sunblocks use components harmful to the body eg Benzophenone 2 lowers thyroid function, Octyl-methoxycinnamate increases facial aging, Oxybenzone disrupts hormones…ugh who want’s all that pore clogging gook when you can use mineral-based sunblock?

What with sunshine being blamed as the main cause of hyper pigmentation, lines and wrinkles as well as the Darth Maul enemy of our collagen and elastin, it’s easy to see how fear mongers have you lathering on chemical-based UV protection regardless of where you live, the climate etc.


Certain ancient philosophers and traditions knew that sunlight carried with it the full spectrum of healing light, that our bodies need. The Midle Ages

Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine prescribed sunbathing.

Ancient yogis used sunlight to keep the body well with Atapa Snana. Our eyes, for instance need full spectrum lighting to function well. (So wearing sunglasses all the time is not a healthy thing to do.)

The ancient Greeks and Romans, practiced Heliotherapy to “cure weak and flabby muscles”.  They considered Apollo the god of medicine, healing, sun and light. Each day, Apollo’s fiery chariot travelled across the sky bestowing life-giving light to our planet. Sun therapy was part of the training programme for Olympic athletes.

During the Middle Ages, the use of light for medical treatment was interrupted, possibly due to medieval morals prohibiting nudity in public.

The Dead Sea is ideal for heliotherapy for psoriasis sufferers. Being 400 m below sea level it has a higher concentration of UVA to UVB. The low humidity, sunny/cloudless days and low rainfall per year make it suitable for  8 months of the year. And while you are there, enjoy a Dead Sea Clay Mask covering your entire body!

Heliotherapy kills bad bacteria; Niels Finsen won a Nobel Prize for discovering how sunlight could disinfect and heal the wounds of soldiers in WWI.


Phptotherapy is the modern term for sunlight therapy.  It’s prescribed for jaundice, acne, fungal infections, eczema and psoriasis as well as sleep disorders, Alzheimers, brain function, heart health and high blood pressure, anxiety and depression. Those ancient people had it right!

Researchers at the University of Edinburgh found that as soon as sunlight touches the skin, a compound called nitric oxide is released into the blood vessels. Nitric oxide is a compound that helps lower blood pressure. D. Richard Weller, Senior Lecturer in Dermatology Edinburghconcluded that the health benefits of sunlight  “far outweigh the risk of getting skin cancer.”

Naturopathic treatments are based on the five great elements or panchamahaboothas: air, water, earth, fire and ether, which are the fundamental constituents of every human.  The common naturopathy modalities include counseling, diet and fasting therapy, mud therapy, hydrotherapy, heliotherapy, massage therapy, acupressure, acupuncture, magnet therapy, and yoga therapy.

I grew up in sunny South Africa and never wore sunblock. I hated the feel of it on my skin and the way it greased up my pores making my skin feel slimy or sticky. I wore a hat, covered up my burnable areas with a T-shirt and sat in the shade in the hotter times of day. My skin probably did age quicker but my bones felt strong and my mood in the sun great. I got a little bit of sunshine every day, it wasn’t famine before feast. I never had seasonal affective disorder. Not so in the UK… daylight bulbs are in my office now.

However living in the UK where the sun is very limited in appearance and the days are very short makes a huge impact on mood, energy. I now take Vitamin D supplements (when i remember!) And turning 52 this year means thoughts of strong bones and healthy hips. Those grey hairs are a little warning sign to take care!


The sun is the major source of Vitamin D that’s used in making strong bones and a deficiency of it is on the rise. Certain supplements and a healthy diet can help your body cope with the sun. The best source of Vitamin D is via sunlight as it may last twice in the bloodsteam than ingested Vitamin D.

Naturally orientated doctors will advise you to get 10-30 minutes of unfiltered sunlight on your skin every day. Sunbathing is a great way to get your vitamin D. And no need to go totally nude, just exposing your legs and arms is enough.

The human race has evolved in the sunshine (not underground caves). We are designed to work with sunlight. With the internet and Netflix, we’re all indoors way more than our ancestors.  Kids live on Fortnite and Snapchat. When I was young we roamed the local neighbourhood on our bicycles or roller skates. We got plenty of sunlight, fresh air and exercise. Mom hung the sheets on the line to airdry. They smelt of sunshine.

The pandemic has meant we’re stuck indoors more. Gone are the trips to sunny destinations.  The change to family structures and support systems has increased stress, anxiety and depression.  Living in apartments or high rises and lack of open spaces is tough. We’re designed to be in the greenery of nature.

How to tan without burning

Sunbathing is a natural antidote to stress. When we sunbathe, we feel great… Apart from all the health benefits for bones, vision, heart and immunity.

So how do you maximise your sun baths?  Here are some tips to help you make the most of the next round of sunshine:

  • Sudden exposure to the sun for a long time will cause burning.  The trick to do it in small doses.
  • You can prepare your skin for extra sunlight exposure before a sunny holiday with vitamin E on the skin. A good tip if you work in an office and never see the sun except on weekends or holidays.
  • There are chemical based suncreams (which my skin/pores still can’t stand the feel of) and natural options include titanium and zinc oxide (inorganic minerals) that reflect light away. They stay on the surface of the skin and are not absorbed.
  • Argan, sesame, red raspberry, coconut do have inherent levels of SPF but cannot be relied on exclusively to prevent burning.
  • A higher level of SPF does NOT provide significantly higher coverage or longer times of protection.
  • There are clothes with inbuilt SPF eg swimsuits/rash vests – cover up the arms, back of the neck.
  • Wear wide-brimmed hats, sunglasses.
  • Stay in the shade when it’s scorching and have limited spells in the sunshine.
  • Ease yourself into the light. Get your 10-30 minutes every day.
  • Even in winter 10 minutes outdoors on an overcast day will give your body the full spectrum of light it needs.  You might still need a lightbox if you suffer from SAD.
  • #1 tip- Never ever fall asleep in the sun – this will burn. Promise me you won’t do this.
  • Imitate those nations who live in sunny deserts and wear loose cotton clothing that covers the arms and legs. Merino wool also has SPF properties so is useful for travellers who need to dress for multiple weather zones. My favourite merino is Icebreaker from NZealand.
  • Your skin colour determines whether you have any inherent SPF (fair skin has zero) whereas dark skin has a natural SPF of up to 13. Which explains why your Celtic origin person fries within minutes of summer sunshine and it takes longer for Mediterranean or African origin folks to feel frazzled.
  • And develop your intuition too to know when you need to be out in the fresh air getting sunlight, notice how your mood is affected, usually for the good.
  • Notice how being stuck indoors/underground for too long you get a sense of cabin fever, raging appetite and affected sleep?
  • Eat foods rich in lycopene such as (cooked) tomatoes, watermelon, hibiscus, rosehips and red peppers.
  • Check your fatty acid balance – you may need supplementation with cod liver oil for the omega 3 and vitamin A content.
  • New research shows that rosemary and grapefruit contain compounds that taken internally, offer protection against UV damage. It’s the naringin citrus bioflavonoid and rosemary polyphenols (rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol). So even if sunscreen wears off from sweat or rubbing, by consuming supplements you can extend topical sun protection from within. (We’d suggest eating grapefruit and rosemary herb in the Summer!)

What to do for sunburn?

Sunlight is key to our wellbeing and all you need to is exercise some moderation and sensibility to get the benefits from it.

But if you do overdo it (and everybody does at some stage!) here are my go-to natural remedies. Stock up in advance. You can find them at your natural wholefoods stores as well as in large supermarkets.

You add drops of lavender to the aloe vera gel when you need to cool down hot skin. Add 3 drops of lavender to a Tablespoon of aloe vera gel. The homeopathic tablets you place under your tongue and they are suitable for young children too.

Another trick from my youth was  adding a cup of ordinary vingear  (not your pricey Balsamic!) into a lukewarm/tepid bath. Soak in there. Your skin will be soothed. And no you don’t come out smelling like vinegar either. Not sure exactly how it works, but it does, trust me.   If you’re on holiday, the local fish and chip shop may have vinegar sachets you can take back to your room.

If you know you’re going to be sun bathing, apply a Vitamin E cream to your skin several weeks before. You can also buy Vitamin E capsules and spread these on your body too. (If you cant find a cream with 10% vitamin E ask me to make you a Bespoke vitamin E cream. )  And for your face, look for productsa rich in rosehip seed such as this serum

Symptoms of vitamin D deficiency NHS

According to the NHS, around 20% of adults and 8 to 24% of children in the UK may have low vitamin D levels.
Symptoms of low vitamin D include:
  • Muscle pain
  • Proximal muscle weakness
  • Rib, hip, pelvis, thigh and foot pain are typical
  • Fractures
  • Rickets (in children) and osteomalacia in adults
  • Depression and low mood
  • Diabetes, heart disease and certian cancers
  • Tiredness, weakness
  • Weight gain
  • Psoriasis
  • Eczema
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder
Seasonal Affective Disorder affects a large proportion of the population – and lack of sunlight affects mood and encourages us to overeat.
There are two types of vitamin D supplement available:„
  • Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol), usually made from sheep’s wool„
  • Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol), made from plants

Light Boxes

My tip for coping with the seemingly endless Autumn-Winter dark and drabness of the UK is to buy a Light Box.

A Light Box is a gadget that emits up to 10,000 lux , like you would get if you were in sunny Africa or in Provence in mid-Summer.
The white light helps with

  • Seasonal Affective Disorder,
  • sleep difficulties and
  • low mood
How to use your Light Box?
Set it up someplace you will be able to sit at.  Maybe on a desk with a book or a journal. The white light is great for artists (watercolours, sketching) as well as dressmakers.  You get perfect colours.  Most household lightbulbs give that nasty yellow hue that hurts your eyes.
Begin using the light box for 30 minutes a day when the clocks change in October.  (You can of course start earlier, but I find the clocks changing as a trigger,  a reminder)
Use the light box in the morning, its best to do it son afetr you wake up. If that’s not possible, set it up at your computer and use it in the morning or afternoon. Don’t use it at night as you need your body to start producing melatonin, not serotonin.
I’ve used:
the Philips Energy Light Original (no longer in production. I LOVED this)
The Von Hause mini – bit small, but better than nothing.

They are not cheap, but will last you many years of use.


Vitamin D psoriasis

Vitamin D can help many people with psoriasis.  Some use a light box, others get outdoors into the sunshine. You can use topical creams and supplements.

Watch what you eat- cut out sugar, fast foods, alcohol and smoking. Eat eggs, fatty fish and cheese.

Switch to gentle natural skincare products made with plant botanicals rather than vaseline based pharmacy gook that does not nourish your skin.

Botanical extracts that are soothing  to psoriasis include, argan, marula, borage, black currant and hemp.


Phototherapy for eczema

Many eczema sufferers have managed to ease or eradicate their conditon by changing their diet and using Vitamin supplements in particular vitamin D.

A 69 year old Texan woman suffered from eczema for her whole life until she started taking Vitamin D.

Lutein and quercetin are also important. (See what was written earlier on in the blog post about food sources of these)


Vitamin D cream

You can look for creams that contain

  • Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol), usually made from sheep’s wool„
  • Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol), made from plants

Sun baths and sunscreen

If you enjoy getting natural Vitamin D from sun baths, be sure to use a mineral based sunscreen on those parts of your body that don’t normally see the sunshine.

Why? Chemical-based sunscreens soak into your skin, and can cause allergic reactions. In contrast, mineral based sunscreens sit on top of your skin and reflect the sun’s rays. Mineral-based sunscreens are also kinder to the oceans and reef life.

Can lack of vitamin D cause weight gain?

Yes.  Sunlight has a positive effect on more than your bones. Overeating during winter is a common issue. Get yourself a Light Box to boost your mood.
Sunlight is good for you and your skin.  It improves sleep, mood and recovery from illness.

Here are ways to get more sun into your life:

  1. Do some exercise outdoors every day, even if it’s just going for a walk.
  2. Wake up at a regular time and open the curtains as soon as you get up.
  3. Change where you sit so you’re closer to a window. Even a small distance can have a dramatic effect on light levels.
  4. Use dimmer light in the evenings. You can even buy colour-changing bulbs so you can benefit from blue-light during the day and warm-coloured light in the evenings.
  5. Listen to your body and go to bed when you start feeling sleepy.
  6. Use blackout blinds to block the light from street lamps.
  7. Cut down on your screen time before bed.

It sounds obvious but just go outside as much as you can.

References : https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(09)00866-3/pdf


What is sea fennel extract?

Sea fennel or rock samphire or samphire is an edible plant part of the carrot family. It’s called Crithmum Maritimum  in Latin

It’s a  hardy plant that grows on rocky beaches and windswept cliffs of south western England, Ireland, Europe and around the  Meditteranean . It has fleshy green leaves and yellow/green flowers. Fed by the silica in the sand and the immense amounts of nutrients carried by ocean waters and breeze

English herbalist, Culpeper, describes the leaves as having a pleasant, hot and spicy taste. While in King Lear, Shakespeare referred to the dangerous practice of collecting rock samphire from sea cliffs. It was sold in London as Crest marine and now the plants are protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981.

What does sea fennel smell like?

It’s a said to be an ocean scented essential oil  that smells like the beach. Think salty air and bitter.

What does rock samphire taste like?

Carrots. Raw sea fennel is crunchy like raw carrots too.

sea fennel vs sweet fennel

the difference between sea fennel and sweet fennel

Difference between sea fennel and sweet fennel

Sweet fennel grows in kitchen gardens around the world and you eat the bulb or feathery leaves. Sea fennel only grows along the coast in a narrow geographic area.

Is sea buckthorn and sea fennel the same.

No, sea buckthorn is a berry that grows on a  thorny bush or shrub. Although it may grow on a windswept coast, it does not grow on the cliff edges and beach pebbles. Sea buckthorn produces orange hued berries that are rich in omega threes and other vitamins.

the difference between sea fennel and sea buckthorn

fennel vs  sea fennel

see notes above

How to use sea fennel extract

The leaves are nutritious and antimicrobial, so were eaten by sailors to prevent scurvy.

A digestive tonic  used for weight loss and firming dimpled skin.

An excellent marine herb  packed with free radical scavengers  that protect  aging skin and provide skin renewing and regenerative properties.

Nutritional benefits of sea fennel:

The leaves are packed with lashings of vitamins ( A, C, E and K),  carotenoids, flavonoids, antioxidants and omega 3 and 6 fatty acids (that protect against coronary heart diseases), water-soluble compounds as sugars, organic acids and many minerals including iodine.

Phenolic compounds in sea fennel leaves  include chlorogenic acid (the same acid found in green coffee beans that helps regulate blood sugar levels and boost metabolism to maintain a healthy weight.

Volatile compounds include  sabinene, γ-terpinene, thymol methyl ether, dillapiol, α-pinen, p-cymol, apiole, cis-ß-ocimene and terpinen-4-ol


Skin benefits of  Sea fennel extract    

Rich in antioxidants that help improve appearance and skin tone:

Contains skin brightening vitamin C, that protects against environmental pollution and UV also strengthens the skin’s epidermis layer, preventing moisture loss.

strengthening vitamin E which helps dull or dry skin

vitamin A, a natural form of retinol soothes spots and acne while boosting  collagen. It also helps avoid clogged pores and evens out skin tone and hyper-pigmentation

As the peptides are very small they can penetrate and calm your skin,  so sea fennel  evens out skin discoloration, reducing redness, blemishes and wrinkles.

In essence, sea fennel energizes and rejuvenates your skin, increasing production of collagen and elastin and improving you skin’s natural radiance.


 Sea fennel extract retinol

Yes, it’s the newest natural alternative to retinol.  Because retinoids are synthetic versions of Vitamin A,  they ‘re not recognised by the body  because synthetics lack the natural counterparts and synergists that normally accompany Vitamin A, that help activate it in your skin.

Synthetic retinoids are not bio available in your skin, so your body is unable to use them.

Sea Fennel, however, contains all the bioavailable and synergistic components that allow your skin to benefit from the vitamins, minerals and peptides within it. It self-activates in your skin, without irritation or down time.

Glow Skincare make a Super Hydrating Mask  with skin-loving Sea Fennel.

sea fennel essential oil rosacea

Yes this is a calming essential oil and can be used in a blend on sensitive skin that suffers rosacea, as it se fennel is a natural retinoid there won’t be the side effects of synthetic vitamin A. Another useful read on rosacea

sea fennel essential oil uses

It can be used for improving digestion, metabolism, skin health and general nutrition, which improves immunity and wellness.

sea fennel good for hair

It is rich in vitamin C, amino acids and other minerals that help the scalp and by doing so help your skin. Se fennel also contains iodine that can help the thyroid which in turn affects hair health.